Cod Uracil-DNA Glycosylase
Cod Uracil-DNA Glycosylase (Cod UNG) from Atlantic cod is completely and irreversibly inactivated by moderate heat treatment. The enzyme is produced in a recombinant E. coli (ung–) strain that contains a modified Cod UNG gene.
Heat-labile Uracil-DNA Glycosylase
There are several commercially available Uracil-DNA glycosylases on the market today. Most of them are of bacterial origin and work well if you have no intention to further analyze the PCR products post-PCR. However, if you want to store your PCR products for downstream analysis such as cloning and sequencing, the reactivation of UNG and subsequent degradation of your PCR products are a problem with most of the commercially available UNGs. Cod UNG from ArcticZymes is completely and irreversibly inactivated by heat thus ensuring that sample integrity is maintained long-term regardless of storage conditions.
Figure 1. The only UNG that become completely and irreversibly heat-inactivated is Cod UNG.
This is illustrated in figure 1, where various UNGs were tested for residual activity after heat inactivation. PCR was performed with dUTP and 1 Unit of 5 different commercially available UNGs. Post-PCR, the PCR products were incubated at room temperature for various time intervals, followed by heating and subsequent cooling. Gel electrophoreses of the PCR products revealed UNG reactivation, and thus severe degradation of PCR products of all UNGs tested, except for Cod UNG.
Figure 2. Chromatograms of sequenced PCR products pre-treated with 1 U Cod UNG (A) or 1 U E.coli UNG (B) and incubated at room temperature for 3 hours. Only Cod UNG leaves sequence quality intact.
Post-PCR sequence quality and integrity were further evaluated by sequencing the PCR products. PCR was performed with one of four different commercially available UNGs added to the mastermix. Post-PCR, the PCR products were incubated at room temperature or 4˚C at various time intervals. Samples were subsequently purified and sequenced. Sequence data were thoroughly analyzed with emphasis on reduced sequence quality as a result of UNG reactivation. As illustrated in both figure 2 and figure 3, samples treated with UNG showed severe degradation of PCR products due to UNG reactivation, except for samples treated with Cod UNG.
Cod UNG works in all commercially available master mixes. Be sure that you have used dUTP containing dNTP mixes in your previous PCR experiments.
- Add 0.25 U Cod UNG directly to your 25 µl PCR reaction
- Pre-incubate for 5 min at room temperature
- Run your PCR
Store your PCR product at -20°C or 4°C degrees for as long you want, before analysis.
- Add 0.2 U Cod UNG directly to your 20 µl RT-PCR reaction
- Preincubate at room temperature for 5 min
- Reverse transcribe your RNA at 50- 55°C
- Run your PCR
- Unit definition: One Unit will liberate 1 nmol Uracil from Uracil-containing DNA per hour at 37°C.
- Specific activity: > 500 000 Units/mg.
- Purity: Purified to apparent homogeneity by SDS-PAGE. No nuclease activity is detected.
- Concentration: Minimum 1 000 Units /ml.
Cod UNG Applications
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- Reduced Hydrophobicity of the Minor Groove Intercalation Loop is Critical for Efficient Catalysis by Cold Adapted Uracil-DNA N-Glycosylase from Atlantic Cod.
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Journal of Thermodynamics & Catalysis. 2015.
- Comparative unfolding studies of psychrophilic and mesophilic uracil DNA glycosylase: MD simulations show reduced thermal stability of the cold-adapted enzyme.
Olufsen M., Brandsdal B.O., Smalås AO.
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- Increased flexibility as a strategy for cold adaptation.
Olufsen M., Smalås AO, Moe E, Brandsdal BO.
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- Optimisation of the surface electrostatics as a strategy for cold adaptation of uracil-DNAN-glycosylase (UNG) from Atlantic cod.
Moe E, Leiros I, Riise EK, Olufsen M, Lanes O, Smalås AO, Willassen NP.
Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004; 343(5): 1221-1230.
- The crystal structure of Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reveals cold-adapted features.
Leiros I, Moe E, Lanes O, Smalås AO, Willassen NP.
Acta Crystallographica. 2003; D59: 1357-1365.
- Identification, cloning, and expression of uracil-DNA glycosylase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): characterization and homology modeling of the cold-active catalytic domain.
Lanes O, Leiros I, Smalås AO, Willassen NP
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- Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a cold-adapted uracil-DNA glycosylase from Atlantic cod.
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- Purification and characterization of a cold-adapted uracil-DNA glycosylase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).
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